Zhang, K., et al., The non-toxigenic Clostridium difficile CD37 protects mice against infection with a BI/NAP1/027 type of C. difficile strain. Anaerobe, 2015. 36: p. 49-52.


Wang, Y.-K., et al., A chimeric protein comprising the glucosyltransferase and cysteine proteinase domains of toxin B and the receptor binding domain of toxin A induces protective immunity against Clostridium difficile infection in mice and hamsters. Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics, 2015. 11(9): p. 2215-2222.


Yong, Y., et al., Identification and functional characterization of Toll-like receptor 2–1 in geese. BMC Veterinary Research, 2015. 11: p. 108.


Huang, T., et al., Clostridium difficile toxin B intoxicated mouse colonic epithelial CT26 cells stimulate the activation of dendritic cells. Pathogens and Disease, 2015. 73(3): p. ftv008.


Wang, Y.-K., et al., Screening of Single-Stranded DNA (ssDNA) Aptamers against a Zearalenone Monoclonal Antibody and Development of a ssDNA-Based Enzyme-Linked Oligonucleotide Assay for Determination of Zearalenone in Corn. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 2015. 63(1): p. 136-141.


Sponseller, J.K., et al., Hyperimmune Bovine Colostrum as a Novel Therapy to Combat Clostridium difficile Infection. The Journal of Infectious Diseases, 2015. 211(8): p. 1334-1341.


Sun, X. and S.A. Hirota, The roles of host and pathogen factors and the innate immune response in the pathogenesis of Clostridium difficile infection. Molecular immunology, 2015. 63(2): p. 193-202.




Peng Z, Wang S, Gide M, Zhu D, Lamabadu W P H M, Li C, Cai J, Sun X. A Novel Bacteriophage Lysin-Human Defensin Fusion Protein Is Effective in Treatment of Clostridioides difficile Infection in Mice, 2019.   

Daou N, Wang Y, Levdikov VM, Nandakumar M, Livny J, Bouillaut L, Blagova E, Zhang K, Belitsky BR, Rhee K, Wilkinson AJ, Sun X, Sonenshein AL. Impact of CodY protein on metabolism, sporulation and virulence in Clostridioides difficile ribotype 027. PloS one. 14(1) : e0206896, 2019. 


Zhu D, Bullock J, He Y, Sun X. Cwp22, a novel peptidoglycan cross-linking enzyme, plays pleiotropic roles in Clostridioides difficile. Environmental microbiology. 21(8) : 3076-3090, 2019. 




Zhao, S., et al., Immune-based treatment and prevention of Clostridium difficile infection. Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics, 2014. 10(12): p. 3522-3530.


Kim, H.B., et al., Beneficial Effect of Oral Tigecycline Treatment on Clostridium difficile Infection in Gnotobiotic Piglets. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 2014. 58(12): p. 7560-7564.


Ali, Y., et al., Temperate Streptococcus thermophilus phages expressing superinfection exclusion proteins of the Ltp type. Frontiers in Microbiology, 2014. 5: p. 98.


Kim H, B, Q, Zhang X, Sun G, Beamer D, Schmidt Y, Wang & S, Tzipori. Effect of oral tigecycline treatment on Clostridium difficile and human gut microflora. Antimicrob Agents Chemother.. 58(12) : 7560-4, 2014.


Zhang K, S, Martinod & X, Sun. Clostridium difficile infection in horses. Austin J Vet Sci & Anim Husb.. 1(1) : 5, 2014.


Zhao S, C, Ghose-Paul KS Zhang S, Tzipori and X, Sun. Clostridium difficile infection: virulence factors, adaptive immunity and vaccine development. Austin J Infect Dis.. 1(1) : 7, 2014.


Zhang J, X, Rui L, Wang Y, Guan X, Sun M, Dong. Polyphenolic extract from Rosa rugosa tea inhibits bacterial quorum sensing and biofilm formation. Food Control. 42: 125-131, 2014.


Wang Y, K, Q, Zou J, H, Sun H, A, Wang X, Sun Z, F, Chen Y, X, Yan. Screening of ssDNA aptamers against a zearalenone monoclonal antibody and development of a ssDNA-based enzyme-linked oligonucleotide assay for determination of zearalenone in corn. J Agric Food Chem.. , 2014.


Schmidt, D.J., et al., A Tetraspecific VHH-Based Neutralizing Antibody Modifies Disease Outcome in Three Animal Models of Clostridium difficile Infection. Clinical and Vaccine Immunology : CVI, 2016. 23(9): p. 774-784.


Ghose, C., et al., Immunogenicity and protective efficacy of recombinant Clostridium difficile flagellar protein FliC. Emerging Microbes & Infections, 2016. 5(2): p. e8.


Kim, H.B., Y. Wang, and X. Sun, A Detrimental Role of Immunosuppressive Drug, Dexamethasone, During Clostridium difficile Infection in Association with a Gastrointestinal Microbial Shift. Journal of microbiology and biotechnology, 2016. 26(3): p. 567-571.


Ghose, C., et al., Immunogenicity and Protective Efficacy of Clostridium difficile Spore Proteins. Anaerobe, 2016. 37: p. 85-95.


Teng, P., et al., Facilely accessible quinoline derivatives as potent antibacterial agents. Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry, 2018. 26(12): p. 3573-3579


Wang, Y., et al., TPL2 is a key regulator of intestinal inflammation in C. difficile infection. Infection and Immunity, 2018.


Chunhui, L., et al., Bis‐Cyclic Guanidines as a Novel Class of Compounds Potent against Clostridium difficile. ChemMedChem. 0(0).


Xu, D., et al., Bioprospecting Deep-Sea Actinobacteria for Novel Anti-infective Natural Products. Frontiers in Microbiology, 2018. 9: p. 787.


Zhu, D., J.A. Sorg, and X. Sun, Clostridioides difficile Biology: Sporulation, Germination, and Corresponding Therapies for C. difficile Infection. Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology, 2018. 8: p. 29.


Wang Y, Wang S, Bouillaut L, Li C, Duan Z, Zhang K, Ju X, Tzipori S, Sonenshein AL, Sun X. Oral Immunization with Nontoxigenic Clostridium difficile Strains Expressing Chimeric Fragments of TcdA and TcdB Elicits Protective Immunity against C. difficile Infection in Both Mice and Hamsters. Infection and immunity. 86(11) , 2018.


​Wang S, Wang Y, Cai Y, Kelly CP, Sun X. Novel Chimeric Protein Vaccines Against Infection. Frontiers in immunology. 9: 2440, 2018.


​Li C, Harmanus C, Zhu D, Meng X, Wang S, Duan J, Liu S, Fu C, Zhou P, Liu R, Wu A, Kuijper EJ, Smits WK, Fu L, Sun X. Characterization of the virulence of a non-RT027, non-RT078 and binary toxin-positive Clostridium difficile strain associated with severe diarrhea. Emerging microbes & infections. 7(1) : 211, 2018.





Check out our publications at our PubMedhere




Past 2013

Zhang H, W, Li X, Rui X, Sun M, Dong. Lactobacillus plantarum 70810 from Chinese paocai as a potential source of β-galactosidase for prebiotic galactooligosaccharides synthesis. Eur Food Res Technol. 236: 817-826, 2013.


Steele J, K, Chen X, Sun Y, Zhang H, Wang S, Tzipori & H, Feng. Toxemia is the cause of systemic disease in the piglet and mouse models of Clostridium difficile infection. J. Infect. Dis.. 205(3) : 384-91, 2012.


Wu J, Lu Z, Nie M, Zhou H, Sun X, Xue X, Bi J, Fang G. Optimization of cryopreservation procedures for porcine endothelial progenitor cells. Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering. 113(1) : 117-23, 2012.


Steele J, Chen K, Sun X, Zhang Y, Wang H, Tzipori S, Feng H. Systemic dissemination of Clostridium difficile toxins A and B is associated with severe, fatal disease in animal models. The Journal of Infectious Diseases. 205(3) : 384-91, 2012.


Wang H, Sun X, Zhang Y, Li S, Chen K, Shi L, Nie W, Kumar R, Tzipori S, Wang J, Savidge T, Feng H. A chimeric toxin vaccine protects against primary and recurrent Clostridium difficile infection. Infection and Immunity. 80(8) : 2678-88, 2012.


Sun X, Wang H, Zhang Y, Chen K, Davis B, Feng H. Mouse relapse model of Clostridium difficile infection. Infection and Immunity. 79(7) : 2856-64, 2011.

Sun X, Savidge T, Feng H. The enterotoxicity of Clostridium difficile toxins. Toxins. 2(7) : 1848-80, 2010.


Sun X, He X, Tzipori S, Gerhard R, Feng H. Essential role of the glucosyltransferase activity in Clostridium difficile toxin-induced secretion of TNF-alpha by macrophages. Microbial Pathogenesis. 46(6) : 298-305, 2009.


He X, Wang J, Steele J, Sun X, Nie W, Tzipori S, Feng H. An ultrasensitive rapid immunocytotoxicity assay for detecting Clostridium difficile toxins. Journal of Microbiological Methods. 78(1) : 97-100, 2009.


He X, Sun X, Wang J, Wang X, Zhang Q, Tzipori S, Feng H. Antibody-enhanced, Fc gamma receptor-mediated endocytosis of Clostridium difficile toxin A. Infection and Immunity. 77(6) : 2294-303, 2009.


Yang G, Zhou B, Wang J, He X, Sun X, Nie W, Tzipori S, Feng H. Expression of recombinant Clostridium difficile toxin A and B in Bacillus megaterium. BMC Microbiology. 8: 192, 2008.


Sun X, Göhler A, Heller KJ, Neve H. The ltp gene of temperate Streptococcus thermophilus phage TP-J34 confers superinfection exclusion to Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactococcus lactis. Virology. 350(1) : 146-57, 2006.


Sun X, Mierke DF, Biswas T, Lee SY, Landy A, Radman-Livaja M. Architecture of the 99 bp DNA-six-protein regulatory complex of the lambda att site. Molecular Cell. 24(4) : 569-80, 2006.


Peng, Z., et al., Antibiotic Resistance and Toxin Production of Clostridium difficile Isolates from the Hospitalized Patients in a Large Hospital in Florida. Frontiers in Microbiology, 2017. 8: p. 2584.

Peng, Z., et al., Update on Antimicrobial Resistance in Clostridium difficile: Resistance Mechanisms and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 2017. 55(7): p. 1998-2008.

Clostridioides difficile  Research Team

​University of South Florida