Clostridium difficile

​C. difficile infection (CDI) has emerged as a significant public health threat worldwide. Toxins are major virulent factors of C. difficile. We are investigating C. difficile toxin-mediated signaling events, leading to production of pro-inflammatory mediators. We are developing preventive and therapeutic agents targeting toxins, pro-inflammatory mediators and C. difficile. We have established mouse and hamster models of CDI in hope to test and find a vaccine candidate against this bacterium.

Current Projects

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The Sun Lab focuses on the pathogenesis of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) and development of novel preventive and therapeutic agents against CDI.  We use multidisciplinary approaches in our research, including molecular biology/microbiology, cell biology, protein engineering, immunology, genome sequencing, flow cytometry, and nano-particle delivery.

Research Interests

Relevant Readings

Expression of recombinant Clostridium difficile toxin A and B in Bacillus megaterium

Background: Major Clostridium difficile virulence factors are the exotoxins TcdA and TcdB.  Due to the large size and poor stability of the proteins, the active recombinant TcdA and TcdB have been difficult to produce. [...]

1) The roles of innate immunity and intestinal microbiome in the pathogenesis of CDI.


2) Signaling pathways of pro-inflammatory mediators and CDI


3) Development of novel therapeutic/preventive agent against C. difficile.


4) Regulation of C. difficile toxin production


5) Antibiotics resistance, epidemiology, and whole-genome sequencing of C. difficile. 



The enterotoxicity of Clostridium difficile toxins

This review considers the mechanisms of TcdA- and TcdB-induced enterotoxicity, and recent developments in this field.

Our Mission